Somalia - Internal Displacement Profiling in Hargeisa

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Source Joint IDP Profiling Service (JIPS)
Date of Dataset February 01, 2015-January 01, 2016
Updated 10 February 2017
Expected Update Frequency Never

Background & Objectives To address the lack of comprehensive, reliable and agreed-upon data on displaced and other displacement-affected populations in Hargeisa, the capital city of Somaliland, UNHCR conducted a collaborative profiling exercise of different target groups in Hargeisa’s IDP settlements between January and June 2015 with the support of the Ministry of Repatriation, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction (MRRR) and partners. The profiling was intended to inform the work of regional stakeholders in support of finding durable solutions for displaced populations in line with the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Framework on Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons.

The specific objectives of the profiling exercise were to 1) provide an estimate of IDP population figures disaggregated by age, sex, location, and diversity; 2) identify different groups through the migration history of target populations; 3) analyze the current situation of target populations including their socio-economic situation, living conditions, and protection concerns; and, 4) understand the needs, capacities, and coping mechanisms of target populations that inform their choice regarding local integration, return to their place of origin, or resettlement.

Geographical coverage The profiling in Hargeisa covered 14 settlements across the city and 5 neighbourhoods where IDPs were residing among host communities.

Data collection methods The profiling used a mixed methods approach that included a desk review, mapping, enumeration, household survey, and key informant interviews. Each methodological decision was made through a participatory decision making process in the profiling working group.

  • Desk review and mapping: existing data from authorities’ baselines, as well as assistance and distribution data from humanitarian partners, was reviewed and triangulated into a consolidated table in order to identify informal settlements in Hargeisa and information gaps. To address these gaps, the profiling team conducted meetings with organisations and community groups that assisted and conducted field visits to these settlements.

  • Enumeration: The enumeration aimed to conduct a full census of the households living in the 14 settlements identified in the mapping phase, and to provide an accurate breakdown of each of the target populations. The enumeration utilised a 12-question questionnaire, which was collected through a mobile data collection platform KoBo Collect. The questions asked – current place of residence, place of origin, reason, length and date of displacement – were designed to classify those living in settlements into the afore-mentioned target groups in order to create a sampling frame for the ensuing household survey. Overall, 11,962 households were enumerated during the exercise.

  • Household survey: A representative sample of 2,510 households was surveyed, with a confidence level of 95% and a 5% margin of error.

Sampling approach In order to capture representative samples of the different target populations outlined above, the survey used two different sampling approaches. A probabilistic sampling approach was used for IDPs from Somaliland, refugee returnees, economic migrants and host community living in settlements. The sample in the settlements was stratified by population group and was representative at the total population level. The distribution of each population group was proportionate to their size in each settlement and was considered when distributing the sample across the settlements. For the IDPs from South Central Somalia and refugees/asylum seekers, a non- probabilistic sampling approach was adopted due to the relatively small size of these population groups and scattered distribution in the urban area of Hargeisa. For the IDPs originating from south- central Somalia and residing in the urban areas of Hargeisa outside of the known settlements, the profiling deployed respondent- driven sampling, whereby the individuals being surveyed referred the data collectors to people they know. In turn, the next individuals surveyed referred the data collectors to people they know, and so forth (snowball sampling). Therefore, results cannot be generalised to the total population, but can give a good indication of the situation of the SC IDPs living outside of settlements. In addition, this method introduced a bias in the sample, as only the households linked to the initial network could be reached.

Time period The data for the profiling was collected between February and June 2015.

Caveats / Comments

Difficulty in accessing the enumeration area: Accessing Sheikh Noor, a longstanding settlement that has blurred into a neighbourhood, proved very difficult for enumerators. During the enumeration exercise the enumeration teams were asked to stop enumerating in the settlement. Some of the population residing there did not want to be recognized as living in a settlement for IDPs. Many people living in this location considered themselves to be part of the local community. This caused confusion on the number of households in the sample framework and explains why the total population of the settlement is lower than what was expected. It also highlights the complexity of identifying settlements in such contexts: while government and humanitarian agencies designate Sheikh Noor as a settlement, those residing there view it in a different light.

Difficulty in accessing refugees and asylum seekers: Despite repeated advocacy initiatives with camp committees and government, it was still difficult to access refugees and asylum seekers directly. In some cases, when the profiling team found and asked refugees and asylum seekers to be interviewed, they were reluctant and often declined, often appearing fearful. To adhere to the 'do no harm' principle, it was decided to omit them from the household survey.

Difficulties distinguishing between target groups: Due to the fact that many of the households in different target groups had stayed in the settlements for extended periods of time, classifying them was sometimes challenging, especially as the target groups proved to have a lot of commonalities. This was particularly true for the target groups that originate from Somaliland – economic migrants and IDPs.

Focus group discussions: Focus group discussions did not form part of the methodology due to security issues as well as time and resource constraints.

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