Amounts paid by refugees and migrants to facilitators to reach Europe

This dataset contains data on the amounts paid by refugees and migrants to facilitate their movement to Europe. The dataset has over 2400 records from 2000 to present, for refugees and migrants from locations mainly in African, the Middle East and Europe.

The estimates on the amount paid by refugees and migrants is based on the number of "detections" reported by European Member States to FRONTEX (before 2008: data from Clandestino which is compatible with said routes) and the median of various sources mentioning the prices of a crossing on a FRONTEX-defined route.

A 2011 report on Turkish refugees points out that one in 7 refugee or migrant do not pay for the journey (other accounts, like the Red Cross data set, show a higer rate of paying passengers - 97%). Therefore, a 15% discount was applied to the final results for all routes.

Prices are in 2014 euros (prices before 2014 have been corrected for inflation).

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  • This dataset updates: Never


Source The Migrants' Files
Date of Dataset Oct 28, 2015
Expected Update Frequency Never

The methodologu used in detail is definedl at

Caveats / Comments

It vastly undercounts the real amount: * Thousands of refugees and migrants come by air with forged documents, at a price ranging from 5000 to 20000 EUR. * The amounts count only FRONTEX-routes and not the routes needed to reach the points of departure for the last leg of the journey (e.g the trip to Tripoli), which costs several hundreds USD. * Data on detection is incomplete in years prior to 2008. * Using the median limits the risk of including high amounts. However, numerous reports of Syrians paying up to 10,000 EUR per person to cross the Med exist. * A person ""detected"" (i.e who reached Europe) can have done the journey several times if he or she was pushed back before. * Over 29,000 have died, even though they paid.